Below is an excerpt of Chapter 3 from our book. You can read an excerpt of chapter 1 here. You can also enter to win one of two copies. The book is available where fine books are sold or directly from our publisher CRC Press. Until January 31, 2011, you can get 20% off the cover price when you purchase directly from CRC Press using this link and this code: 810DE.
Chapter Contents (excerpt is section 3.8)
3.1 How Hearing Changes With Age
3.1.1 Pitch Perception
3.1.3 Sound Localization
3.1.4 Sound Compression
3.1.5 Mp3s, Cell Phones and Other Compressed Audio
3.1.6 Background Noise
3.2 Interim Summary
3.3 Accessibility Aids
3.3.1 Hearing Aids
3.3.2 Telephony Services
3.4 Interim Summary
3.5 Human Language
3.5.2 Speech Rate
3.5.3 Environmental Support
3.6 Interim Summary
3.7 Designing Audio Displays
3.7.3 Passive Voice
3.7.5 Number and Order of Options
3.8 In Practice: The Auditory Interface
3.9 General Design Guidelines
3.10 Suggested Readings
3.8 In Practice: The Auditory Interface
The textual representation of the menu shown in Figure 3.7 appears to be a very simple menu, certainly more simple than some of the nine-option menus some companies offer. However, this menu becomes deceptively complex in an audio format. Remember, the listener cannot glance back to any part of the menu that he or she misses, and must hold each option in memory while comparing every new option to find the “best” selection to complete the task.
In this menu the user is greeted, and offered a positive message. What follows should be either an instruction with how to proceed in the system or the most common choice. Here, the user is directed for a very particular activity – a loan advance (and probably not the most common option chosen) – to visit a website. The wording of this information is lengthy and confusing and there is little information on how to access the website or what one should do with no internet access options. This first option sets up confusion and delays the understanding of subsequent options and commands. However an audio menu cannot be paused to let the user mentally catch up.
The next information is a command to choose an option; however this is not directly followed by options. Instead, the listener is informed about their privacy rights. This is another interruption in user expectancies for the system. This is followed by a very typical menu of choices organized in a way that is useful to the bank.
However, how a bank organizes choices (by departments or their computer system) is probably not how a user organizes them. These general categories defined by the bank are : User Account, Salary Advance, Loans, Mortgages, and Other. If it is true that users think of their mortgage as being separate from a “loan,” then it would make sense to list the part (mortgage) before the whole (loans) to keep users who think of their mortgage as a loan from choosing “loans” before they hear the mortgage option.
A more useful order would be to group the portions of this menu into categories: rhetorical information, instruction, and responsive information. All rhetorical information (welcome, thanks, privacy, etc.) belongs up front. Be cautious, however, as lengthy rhetorical information can produce inattention in the user, and they may tune out for the instruction and responses.
The following steps constitute one example of a re-design and testing plan.
- Step 1: Make a list of all options currently offered or desired in the phone system
- Step 2: Examine previous phone system data and select the 4 most commonly chosen options
- Step 3: Create representative tasks for most common options and for least common options
- Step 4: Recruit older users and perform a card sort with all options. Have users write the expected functions under each option. What kind of functions and information do they expect to find under “Account Options?”
- Step 5: Compare the number of groups and options within each group to the 4 most commonly chosen options
- Step 6: Create new interface with top 4 options, with user-defined functions under each option. Include other top level options under “Other”
Another design recommendation is to include natural language triggered by user responses. For example, if a user presses 3 or says “Loans,” the response from the system could be “Ok, you said loans, right? Let me get that.” (The system should listen for a “no” at this time). This allows the user time to think and provides environmental support by reminding the user of the next step. This is desirable despite the time it adds.
The re-designed menu in Figure 3.8 shows significant improvements over the first system. This menu offers more options (7), but they are presented in a manageable way. First, the menu offers voice response and monitors for response during presentation of the options. If the system thought the user said “loans,” it replies with “That was loans, right?” If the user then says “no,” the system repeats the original menu with a natural language introduction. “Ok, let me say the options again. Insurance,….” The system offers an explanation for its actions that prepares the user for a response (and prepares them for the result of their response,) such as “I’ll need to ask you a few questions so I can transfer your call.”
Second, notice that the menu changes based on non-response. Rather than repeating the same options that produced no response from the user, the interface tries different tactics. If no voice responses occur, the system offers button press options, but does not clutter the initial interface with these less natural inputs. Last, notice how the options with button presses change as they progress down the line: the first two options include extra information: “You can say ‘new account’ or press 1. Quotes press 2.” Then the reminders to say or press disappear, as the user is only interested in the options. This is a nice implementation of menu simplification via natural language and a good example of how to move from overall context to list format.
The benefits of such a menu are many and extend beyond the hearing chapter of this book. Such improvements are helpful for working memory, language comprehension, and decision making as discussed in Chapter 4.